Defending the Judeo-Christian Ethic, Limited Government, & the American Constitution
Sunday December 14th 2014

Classic Philosophers: Great Thinkers of Western Civilization

While many of the philosophers listed below are not in the classical realistic tradition, an understanding of their philosophical views is important because of their influence within the history of Western philosophy.



  • The Philosophy of the Early Greek Naturalists
  • The Philosophy of the Sophists
  • The Philosophy of Socrates
  • The Philosophy of Plato
  • The Philosophy of Aristotle
  • The Philosophy of the Stoics
  • The Philosophy of the Epicureans
  • The Philosophy of Plotinus


  • The Philosophy of St. Augustine
  • The Philosophy of St. Bonaventure
  • The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas
  • The Philosophy of John Duns Scotus

Elsewhere in The Academy

The System of Thomas Aquinas
One of the leaders of the neo-Thomistic revival, Maurice de Wulf, gives a concise exposition of the central doctrines of the philosophical system formulated by Thomas Aquinas
. edited and prepared for the web by Jonathan Dolhenty, Ph.D..

The Philosophers of the Renaissance: Transition to Modern Philosophy

  • The Philosophy of Nicholas of Cusa
  • The Philosophy of Bernardino Telesio
  • The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno
  • The Philosophy of Tommaso Campanella
  • The New View of Politics and Physics: Machiavelli and Galileo


  • The Philosophy of René Descartes
  • The Philosophy of Benedict Spinoza
  • The Philosophy of Nicolas de Malebranche
  • The Philosophy of G.W. von Leibnitz
  • The Philosophy of Francis Bacon
  • The Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
  • The Philosophy of John Locke
  • The Philosophy of George Berkeley
  • The Philosophy of David Hume
  • The Philosophy of Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • The Philosophy of Immanuel Kant
  • The Philosophy of J.G. Fichte
  • The Philosophy of von Schelling & Schleiermacher
  • The Philosophy of Georg Hegel
  • The Philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer
  • The Philosophy of Rudolph Hermann Lotze
  • The Philosophy of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati & Vincenzo Gioberti
  • The Philosophy of the Positivists: Comte, Mill, Spencer, Feuerbach, Marx, Engels
  • The Philosophy of Karl Marx


  • The Philosophy of William James
  • The Philosophy of John Dewey
  • The Philosophy of the Existentialists
  • The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead
  • The Philosophy of Neo-Thomism: Etienne Gilson and Jacques Maritain


  • The Perfecting of Philosophy in Medieval Times
  • An Overview of 17th Century Philosophy
  • An Overview of 18th & 19th Century Philosophy

PLEASE EXCUSE ANY DUPLICATION BELOW! (but feel free to use these resources, the links are still good!)

We are reorganizing our menu system at the moment. Thank you for your patience!

Classic Philosophers



The Politics, by Aristotle

Plato: (Plato’s Works homepage)


The Persians, by Aeschylus
The Seven Against Thebes, by Aeschylus
The Suppliants, by Aeschylus
Agamemnon, by Aeschylus
Prometheus Bound, by Aeschylus


The Clouds, by Aristophanes


Clio, by Herodotus

Euterpe, by Herodotus

Thaleia, by Herodotus

Melpomene, by Herodotus


To Atticus (I), by Cicero


Oedipus, the King, by Sophocles

Oedipus at Colonus, by Sophocles

Plutarch: The Lives of the Noble Grecian’s and Romans

Life of Theseus, by Plutarch

Life of Romulus, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Romulus with Theseus, by Plutarch

Lycurgus, by Plutarch

Numa Pompilius, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Numa with Lycurgus, by Plutarch

Solon, by Plutarch

Poplicola, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Poplicola with Solon, by Plutarch

Themistocles, by Plutarch

Camillus, by Plutarch

Pericles, by Plutarch

Fabius, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Fabius with Pericles, by Plutarch

Alcibiades, by Plutarch

Gaius Marcus, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Alcibiades with Gaius Marcus Coriolonos, by Plutarch

Timoleon, by Plutarch

Aemilius, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Timoleon with Aemilius, by Plutarch

Pelopidas, by Plutarch

Marcellus, by Plutarch

Comparison of Pelopidas with Marcellus, by Plutarch

Aristides, by Plutarch

Marcus Cato, by Plutarch

Comparison of Aristides with Marcus Cato, by Plutarch

Philopeomen, by Plutarch

Flamininus, by Plutarch

Comparison of Philopeomen with Flamininus, by Plutarch

Pyrrhus, by Plutarch

Otho, by Plutarch

Lysander, by Plutarch

Sylla, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Lysander with Sylla, by Plutarch

Cimon, by Plutarch

Lucullus, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Lucullus with Cimon, by Plutarh

Nicias, by Plutarch

Crassus, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Crassus with Nicias, by Plutarch

Sertorius, by Plutarch

Eumenes, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Sertorius with Eumenes, by Plutarch

Agesilaus II, by Plutarch

Pompey, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Pompey and Agesilaus II, by Plutarch

Alexander, by Plutarch

Caesar, by Plutarch

Phocion, by Plutarch

Cato the Younger, by Plutarch

Cleomenes, by Plutarch

Tiberius Gracchus, by Plutarch

Caius Gracchus, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus with Agis and Cleomenes, by Plutarch

Demosthenes, by Plutarch

Cicero, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Demosthenes with Cicero, by Plutarch

Demetrius, by Plutarch

Anthony, by Plutarch

The Comparison of Demetrius and Antony, by Plutarch

Dion, by Plutarch

Marcus Brutus

Comparison of Dion and Brutus, by Plutarch

Aratus, by Plutarch

Artaxerxes, by Plutarch

Otho, by Plutarch


Plutarch: Moralia

On Education

On Love To One’s Offspring

On Love

Conjugal Precepts


Consolatory Letter To His Wife



Thomas Aquinas

The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas, a beginners course by Jonathan Dolhenty

The Life of Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): The “Angelic Doctor”

The Philosophical  System of Thomas Aquinas, by Maurice de Wulf, edited and adapted by Jonathan Dolhenty.

The Works of Thomas Aquinas

The Place of Thomism in Mediaeval Philosophy 

The Philosophical System of Thomas Aquinas, Plan and Method

Aquinas: Central Position of the Theory of Knowledge

Knowledge of Particular Objects and its forms

Abstract and General Knowledge

Intellectual Knowledge: Idea, Judgement, Reasoning

The Wide Field of Consciousness

Origin of Sensations: Psychical and Physical Aspects

Origin of Intellectual Knowledge

General Notion of the directing principle of knowledge

Various Aspects of the Epistemological Problem

Moderate Realism and the Universals

Desire and Freedom

The Process of Change

Soul and body


Personal Conduct and Moral Values

Obligation and Moral Law

Conscience and Moral Virtue

Group Life and the State

Classification of the Sciences and Divisions of Philosophy



Ancient Rome

The First Oration of Cicero Against Catiline

English Writers

Areopagitica (1644) John Milton
Francis Bacon, Of Truth

American Writers

Emerson: The Christian Teacher: 1838

Jonathan Dolhenty on Thomas Aquinas

General Metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas

An Introduction to the Doctrines of Thomas Aquinas

Theory of Knowledge (Epistemology) of Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas: Conscience and Moral Values

Thomas Aquinas: Group Life and the State


The Democratic Way of Life, by Pericles

Essays at The Moral Liberal

Robert F. Beaudine: The Heresy of Constantine
Robert F. Beaudine: Cultural Marxism: The Doom of Language

Selwyn Duke: The Security Sex

Leonard O. Goenaga: The Pulpit and the American Revolution: Jonathan Mayhew
Leonard O. Goenaga:The Pulpit and the American Revolution: Major Themes